NUTRIENTS AND USEFUL ELEMENTS IN CHEESE
INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL JOURNAL “ INNOVATION TECHNICAL AND TECHNOLOGY”,
Vol. 2 No. 2 (2021): STJITT
There are a total of 500 to 800 varieties of cheese. Although most cheese is consumed as “table cheese,” which may be arbitrarily defined as cheese eaten on its own or as an accompaniment to bread or crackers during meals, significant quantities of cheese are also consumed as an ingredient in cheese-based dishes/snacks in the home, food service, and prepared consumer foods. Notable examples of natural cheeses used in these applications include Cheddar, Mozzarella, and Emmental, with typical dishes including toasted sandwiches, quiche, omelets, pasta, pizza, and lasagna. As an ingredient, pertinent attributes or functionalities of the unheated cheese include crumbliness, slice ability, spread ability, shred ability or grate ability, and those of a heated cheese include overall appearance, flavor, extent of flow, stringiness, fluidity, and oiling-off. The type and level of functionality required depends upon the application (Tables 29.1 and 29.2). Hence, Feta cheese which is crumbly is ideal for tossed salad; Parmesan, which grates very well into small particles, for sprinkling onto lasagna or pasta dishes; and heated Mozzarella, which exhibits moderate flow and the ability to form fibrous strings when extended, for pizza. Nevertheless, the functional attributes, and, hence, suitability of any specific cheese type as an ingredient can vary due to age and degree of maturity, slight differences in make procedure and composition (such as calcium content and pH) .
In ancient times, cheese was primarily a concentrated form of milk with the benefit of a prolonged shelf life. The high content of fat and protein in cheese made it an energy-rich and nutritious food that was suitable for our hardworking ancestors. Recent advances in nutrition science have highlighted the contribution of cheese to nutrition and health. Cheese is a rich source of essential nutrients; in particular, proteins, bioactive peptides, amino acids, fat, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals. Ripened cheese is free of lactose and therefore suitable for the nutrition of lactose-intolerant individuals .
The volume of cheese being consumed as an ingredient has greatly increased since the 1970s owing to rapid growth of the food service and prepared consumer food sectors. Simultaneously, there is an increasing emphasis on consistency of functional attributes, especially in terms of cooking performance. For example, cheese may be required to melt and flow sufficiently within a given time at a given cooking temperature, have flow and stretch ability that fall within prescribed limits, maintain desired heat-stability (remain fluid and succulent without crusting) on extended holding at high temperature, or maintain sufficient fluidity (without congealing or becoming stodgy or tacky) while holding following heating (e.g., in a bain-marie). This trend has given rise to the development of ingredient cheese (as distinct from table cheese), which may be defined as cheese manufactured with targeted functionalities designed to optimize quality as an ingredient in specific applications, for example, pizza. The production of ingredient cheese generally involves alteration of the manufacturing protocol and composition so as to impart specific functionalities as specified in business-to-business relationships, and which typically include controlled cooking properties, for example, low-or nonmelt cream cheese or Cheddar cheese; customized degrees of flow, oiling-off and stringiness in pizza-style Mozzarella .